Unencapsulate Yourself

We loved to escape the boxes when we were kids… Photo credit: thewoodenshoes (Flickr)

If I had to make a “top 5” list of foundational tools in software development, encapsulation would certainly make the cut. It’s a major enabler of abstraction; it’s what makes conceptual complexity tractable.

Recognizing its importance, most modern programming languages encourage encapsulation in one way or another. For example, languages friendly to OOP lead coders to think about the world in terms of well encapsulated objects and the messages they pass.

I’m a big fan of encapsulation.

But if you never leave your boxes, you miss half the fun.

Layers and silos

As cells grow into tissues in biology, so similar objects in an OOP mindset often coalesce into horizontal layers composed of entities with compatible composition and duties. These strata get names: “the business logic layer”, “the display layer”, “middleware”, “core engine”, and so forth. If you’ve worked on anything MVC or n-tier or client-server, you know this mindset.

Less commonly, objects align on a vertical axis, producing semi-independent silos that span layers to produce decoupled top-level features. An optional accounting module that has its own db and middleware might be modeled as an independent stack in a vertical architecture. Aspect-oriented programming also spans layers, though in a less siloed way.

In either case, the boxes you draw to model your architecture tend to correspond to teams, and those teams tend to use different tools and processes, and those differences tend to isolate rather than converge organizations.

This is a problem.

You should encapsulate code. People, not so much.

Generalists and specialists

Specialists have their place. But if your dev organization is overly skewed toward specialists Continue reading