In the 1950s, researchers at Johns Hopkins conducted some very troubling experiments. They caught wild rats and squeezed them in their hands until they stopped struggling, teaching them that nothing they did would let them escape the crushing grip of their human captors. Then they dropped the rats in a bucket of water and watched them swim.
Now, wild rats are superb swimmers. On average, rats that had not received the squeeze treatment lasted around 60 hours in the bucket before they gave up from exhaustion and allowed themselves to drown. One unsqueezed rat swam for 81 hours.
The average squeezed rat sank after 30 minutes.
In the 1960s and 1970s, Martin Seligman became interested in this phenomenon–he called it “learned helplessness“–and he was able to trigger similar “giving up” behavior in dogs and other animals. He theorized that human depression Continue reading