The other day my daughter was in the backseat as I pulled out of the driveway, and she instructed me to “turn that mirror over here.”
“Which mirror?” I asked.
“That one,” she said, without any clarification.
“Which one?” I said again. “I don’t know what you mean when you say ‘that’…”
Eventually I cracked the teenage code and tilted the center rearview mirror toward her so she could check her makeup. :-) But it was harder than it should have been.
A lot of frustration could have been avoided if I could have turned around to face her to see which direction her eyes were pointing–or if she’d just stretched out her finger.
In linguistics, deixis is a sort of pointing—the juxtaposition of something against a reference context to provide meaning. Although we can define words like “here” and “there” in the abstract, their specific meaning always depends on the physical or metaphorical location of the speaker when they’re used. Likewise, “now” and “then” are deictic with respect to the time of an utterance; pronouns like “we” and “you” use deixis that relies on interpersonal context; honorifics are deictic with respect to cultural relationships.
Since the web now permeates our collective experience, think of deixis as a kind of hyperlink. Imagine if I had written my daughter’s sentence like this: “Turn that mirror over here.” It sorta fits, doesn’t it?